Why I am here. What I am thinking.

Participants’ positions and the responses submitted to the questions:
a) How does your position, work or research related to cyber norms?
b) What norm, rule or practice would you want adopted widely in cyberspace or abandoned? Alternatively, what is your view of the idea of cyber norms?

A-F | G-L | M-R | S-T | U-Z

Suleyman Anil, Head, Cyber Defense, NATO
Relation: "My section is responsible to develop NATO's cyber defense policy and action plans for the approval of Member States. While the term 'cyber norms' is not used in NATO, NATO Policy on Cyber Defense defines the common approaches and methodologies on cyber defense among the member states and between NATO and partner nations and IOs. 'National cyber due diligence (i.e. nations responsibility to ensure integrity and availability of national cyberspace and services).'"

Dr. Charles Barry, Senior Research Fellow, National Defense University
Relation: A primary research portfolio is the international aspects of cyber security, and particular international aspects that impact member and partner states of NATO in the concept of Alliance consultations, command and control. “Encourage nations to regulate ISPs, and through them user/customer behavior and security practices. Apply Laws of War to cyber actions.”

Steven Chabinsky, Deputy Assistant Director, FBI
Relation: Responsibilities span FBI domestic and international investigative and community efforts focused on protecting the United States from nation-state, terrorist, and criminal cyber attack and intrusion, online child exploitation, Internet fraud, and intellectual property rights violations.

Prof. Nazli Choucri, Political Science Dept., MIT
Relation: PI of Explorations in International Cyber Relations (ECIR), a Minerva Research Initiative project at Harvard and MIT to investigate emergent international and global relations in and about cyberspace. "I teach in the area of international relations; I am following the literature on norms in high politics (the subject of this workshop), but my ECIR-based interest is on norms in low politics and how these might migrate to high politics."

Prof. Paul Cornish, U. of Bath, UK
Relation: "I have led a cyber security research team at Chatham House for four years and I am currently examining issues of governance and norms. I argue that cyberspace should be shaped by a technologically, politically and ethically informed discourse. I am particularly interested in the matter of leadership, whether governmentally or institutionally. 'Norms are about turning cyberspace into an environment of trust. Consider the role of Confidence Building Measures in generating trust.'"

Andrew Cushman, Senior Director, Trustworthy Computing, Microsoft Corporation
Relation: The Global Security Strategy and Diplomacy team in Microsoft's Trustworthy Computing Group seeks to connect governments with Microsoft's security engineering expertise. "I focus on solving non-technical security problems - informing policy, catalyzing ecosystem change, and helping build governments' security capabilities. 'Cybercrime: I would like to see cybercrime legislation enacted broadly - at a minimum Dual Criminality statues on the books.'"

Prof. Ron Deibert, Director, Citizen Lab/ Canada Centre, U. of Toronto
Relation: The Citizen Lab does R&D at the intersection of global security, human rights, and cyberspace. "We monitor and impact cyber norms, from documenting patterns of Internet censorship with the ONI to uncovering cyber-espionage and attacks on NGOs with the InfoWar Monitor, to building tools to circumvent growing Internet controls (Psiphon). 'The most important cyber norms are those that spread unintentionally.'"

Prof. Chris Demchak, Strategic Research Dept, Center for Cyber Conflict Studies, US Naval War College
Relation: "In comparative studies of large-scale complex systems, surprise, and organizations, I study cybered conflicts and national security resilience as expressed over time in national level policies, institutional structures, and iterative institutional learning cycles."

Greg Dempsey, Senior Policy Officer, Foreign Affairs Canada
Relation: Delegate to the inaugural meeting of the Intergovernmental Experts' Group on Cybercrime at the UN in Vienna. Currently assisting with Canada's preparations for the London Cyber Conference

Corey Dvorkin, Director, Cyber Policy, Government of Canada
Relation: "I am leading the policy work within the Government of Canada to address the economic and national security challenges of cyber threats. Recognizing that such efforts need to proceed in cooperation with allies and build on work in international venues, Canada was one of the early countries to begin exploring the merits of cyber norms."

Prof. Martha Finnemore, George Washington University
Relation: Political scientist specializing in norms and global governance

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Prof. Jack Goldsmith, Harvard Law School

Mark Goodman, Singularity University & Cyber Crime Research Institute
Relation: "I have worked for nearly two decades on cyber crime and terrorism around the world. My background is in law enforcement. I am quite interested in norms in the digital underground, as well as the lack of cyber norms in global law enforcement."

Amy Gordon, International Peace and Security Program, The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
Relation: MacArthur currently funds work on a variety of issues related to the internet, including support for the OpenNet Initiative. Ms. Gordon is exploring the security implications of cyber behavior with a view to potential grant making in this area.

Melissa Hathaway, President, Hathaway Global Strategies, LLC
Relation: "I regularly give advice on policy matters to government around the world and am advocating and bridging relationships between government and the private sector as it relates to research, resilience, and partnership."

Prof. Duncan Hollis, Associate Dean, Temple University School of Law
Relation: "I research how international law currently governs cyberattacks and cyber exploitations and options for developing new international legal regulations for cyberspace. My most recent work proposes the creation of a duty to assist as the best available regulatory mechanism for dealing with cyberattacks in light of the attribution problem."

Dr. Rex Hughes, Assistant Director, Cyber Defence Project (CDP) at the Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy (CSaP), Cambridge U.

Dr. Roger Hurwitz, Research Scientist, Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT; Senior Fellow, Canada Centre for Global Security Studies
Relation: Principal organizer of this workshop with the aim of specifying the cyber norms worth cultivating at subsequent conferences and among diverse publics. "Talk is cheaper, more practicable and possibly more effective than cyber deterrence."

Nigel Inkster, Director of Transnational Threats and Political Risk at the International Institute for Strategic Studies, London
Relation: "I have inaugurated a programme of cyber security studies at IISS specializing in the area of China and the Internet on which I have written articles and a chapter in forthcoming book. 'This is not a subject that lends itself to comprehensive solutions. We should focus on the doable; dealing with cyber crime.'"

Yurie Ito, Director for Global Coordination, Japan Computer Emergency Response/ Coordination Center (JPCERT/CC)
Relation: "Through my positions, I participated in numerous cyber security global forums to foster trust and operational collaboration across organizations with significant cultural and political differences. My thesis at Fletcher school on Managing Global Cyber Health and Security through Risk Reduction is titled Clean Internet Ecosystem; Confidence Building Measures in Cyber Conflict: Raise transparency between nation states when disruption occur."

Sean Kanuck, National Intelligence Officer for Cyber, National Intelligence Council / DNI
Relation: "As the US Intelligence Community's lead for cyber analysis, I am particularly interested in the interplay between technical standards, state practice, and international law in cyberspace. National command and control decisions will be dependent on policy doctrines, rules of engagement, and evolving norms. 'The application of the existing principles of neutrality to cyberspace should be considered as a possible norm.'"

Camino Kavanagh, Visiting doctoral fellow, Canada Centre for Global Security Studies, U. of Toronto
Relation: "I'm currently mapping policy developments on cyber security, including the different debates on norms."

Mitchell Kamoroff, Director, Trusted Mission Systems and Networks, DOD

Franklin Kramer, Distinguished Fellow, Atlantic Council

Prof. Karl Levitt, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, U. of California at Davis

Dr. James Lewis, Senior Fellow, CSIS
Relation: Essay: Multilateral Agreements to Constrain Cyberconflict. "[Abandon] the implicit norm that anonymous trolling is a right and somehow essential to civil liberties".

Dr. Patrick Lincoln, Director, SRI
Relation: "My laboratory has worked in cyber security and privacy for decades 'Abandon perimeter-defense-only norm. Institute collective defense norm."

Dr. Adriane Lapointe, Special Assistant to the NSA Director of Foreign Affairs for Cyber
Relation: "As Special Assistant to the NSA Director of Foreign Affairs for Cyber, I share the general interest in norms. As a recent visiting fellow at CSIS, I did research in the way analogies structure our perspective on cyber issues."

Prof. Catherine Lotrionte, Executive Director, Institute for Law, Science & Global Security, Georgetown University

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John Mallery, Research Scientist, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT
Relation: "I am exploring norms for reducing cyber insecurity 'ICT hardware, software and algorithms should be resiliantly secure in order to move the advantage from the offense to the defense.'"

Michele Markoff, Senior Policy Advisor, Office of the Cyber Coordinator, US Dept of State
Relation: "I initiate, articulate and implement international cyber norms."

Tim Maurer, Harvard Kennedy School
Relation: "I am affiliated with the Harvard Kennedy School as a researcher focusing on international affairs and cyber-security. I recently published 'WikiLeaks 2010: A Glimpse of the Future?' and 'Cyber Norm Emergence at the United Nations' available as publications of Harvard's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs."

David Mussington, Senior Advisor for Cyber Policy, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Dept. of Defense

Jan Neutze, Senior Security Strategist, Office of Global Security, Strategy and Diplomacy, Microsoft Corporation
Relation: "The Global Security Strategy and Diplomacy (GSSD) team at Microsoft works to connect governments with Microsoft's security engineering expertise. Within GSSD, I focus on internet governance and norms discussions and engage internal and external stakeholders (members of the ecosystem) in order to advance effective cybersecurity solutions."

Vinh Nguyen, Senior Analyst, US Department of Defense
Mr. Nguyen is a senior cybersecurity analyst at the Department of Defense. He provides strategic cyber mitigation strategies and policy analytic support to USG decision and policymakers.

Prof. Joseph Nye, Harvard Kennedy School of Government

Christopher Painter, Coordinator of Cyber Issues, US Dept. of State

Greg Rattray, Partner Delta Risk

Karl Frederick Rauscher, Chief Technology Officer, EastWest Institute
Relation: Work with EWI involves convening conversations, reframing issues and mobilizing resources to make the world’s digital infrastructures safer and better.

Rafal Rohozinski, CEO, SecDev and Senior Fellow, Canada Centre for Global Security Studies

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Dr. John Savage, An Wang Professor of Computer Science, Brown University
Relation: "After spending a year in the Cyber Affairs of the US State Department as a Jefferson Science Fellow, I developed an interest in both cyberspace technology and policy. I also developed a course on Cybersecurity and International Relations. I am interested in ways that technology can inform the formulation of norms."

Michael Sechrist, Project Manager, Minerva Research Initiative, Harvard Kennedy School
Relation: "I work as project manager on a DoD-funded, multi-disciplinary, joint initiative between Harvard and MIT to study the burgeoning field of cyber international relations. I also helped create the impetus for the first international public-private partnership in protecting undersea communication cables. PPPs could be considered a cyber norm."

Dr. Michael Siegel, Principal Research Scientist, Sloan School of Management, MIT
Relation: Research on ECIR Minerva Project. Examining the use of Dynamic Modeling on issues pertaining to International Relations, Cyber Security, Cyber Politics and Social Media. Looking at norms issues related to each of these topics. Co-hosting CyberPolitics and Social Media Workshop at MIT in December (session on Norms and Social Media).

Adm. William (Bill) Studeman, independent consultant
Relation: Former Director of the National Security Agency and Dep Dir of CIA/equivalent of Principal Deputy DNI, and VP of Northrop Grumman, now consults to a small industry set, with 50% of his time spent in cyber.

Dr. Eneken Tikk, former head Legal and Policy Branch, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence, Tallinn
Relation: One of the first lawyers to explore the legal landscape of the Internet in Estonia.

Paul Triolo, Senior Analyst, US Dept. of Defense
Relation: "Over the past decade, I have worked on a range of issues related to cyber norms, focused on Asia in general and China in particular, including, Internet controls, Internet sovereignty, cyber security, cyber policy, computer network operations, and IT standards. 'We need international agreement on the norms of responsible behavior in cyberspace, including applicability of LAC.'"

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Jody Westby, CEO, Global CyberRisk and Distinguished Fellow, Carnegie Mellon CyLab

Panayotis "Pano" Yannakogeorgos, Cyber Defense Analyst and Faculty Researcher at the Air Force Research Institute

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