ResearchTools & ResourcesOnline Resources

Communities at Risk

This is part of a series of videos and reading lists we’ve collected based on themes in Citizen Lab research. You can find more on the Tools & Resources page.

How do information controls impact different communities? Debates on Internet-enabled mass surveillance practices have increasingly dominated mainstream conversations, especially in the wake of the Snowden revelations. But what is not as well documented is targeted surveillance operations against civil society that threaten their ability to hold governments accountable.



Reading list

“Full Article: A Tale of Two Cybers – How Threat Reporting by Cybersecurity Firms Systematically Underrepresents Threats to Civil Society,” June 11, 2020.

“Dark Basin: Uncovering a Massive Hack-For-Hire Operation – The Citizen Lab,” June 9, 2020.

“Missing Link: Tibetan Groups Targeted with 1-Click Mobile Exploits.” The Citizen Lab, September 24, 2019.

“The Kingdom Came to Canada: How Saudi-Linked Digital Espionage Reached Canadian Soil.” The Citizen Lab, October 1, 2018.

“Spying on a Budget: Inside a Phishing Operation with Targets in the Tibetan Community.” The Citizen Lab, January 30, 2018.

“Nile Phish: Large-Scale Phishing Campaign Targeting Egyptian Civil Society.” The Citizen Lab, February 2, 2017.

“Group5: Syria and the Iranian Connection.” The Citizen Lab, August 2, 2016.
“Communities @ Risk: Targeted Digital Threats Against Civil Society | The Citizen Lab – University of Toronto,” November 11, 2014.

“Shedding Light on the Surveillance Industry.” The Citizen Lab, December 20, 2013.

NSO Group Reports:

“Reckless VII: Wife of Journalist Slain in Cartel-Linked Killing Targeted with NSO Group’s Spyware.” The Citizen Lab, March 20, 2019.

“Reckless VI: Mexican Journalists Investigating Cartels Targeted with NSO Spyware Following Assassination of Colleague.” The Citizen Lab, November 27, 2018.

“Director of Mexican Anti-Corruption Group Targeted with NSO Spyware.” The Citizen Lab, August 30, 2017.

“Reckless IV: Lawyers for Murdered Mexican Women’s Families Targeted with NSO Spyware.” The Citizen Lab, August 2, 2017.

“Reckless III: Investigation Into Mexican Mass Disappearance Targeted with NSO Spyware.” The Citizen Lab, July 10, 2017.

“Reckless Redux: Senior Mexican Legislators and Politicians Targeted with NSO Spyware.” The Citizen Lab, June 29, 2017.

“Reckless Exploit: Mexican Journalists, Lawyers, and a Child Targeted with NSO Spyware.” The Citizen Lab, June 19, 2017.

“Bitter Sweet: Supporters of Mexico’s Soda Tax Targeted With NSO Exploit Links.” The Citizen Lab, February 11, 2017.

FinFisher Reports:

“Mapping FinFisher’s Continuing Proliferation.” The Citizen Lab, October 15, 2015.

“For Their Eyes Only: The Commercialization of Digital Spying.” The Citizen Lab, April 30, 2013.

“You Only Click Twice: FinFisher’s Global Proliferation – Citizen Lab.” The Citizen Lab, March 13, 2013.

“The SmartPhone Who Loved Me: FinFisher Goes Mobile?” The Citizen Lab, August 29, 2012.

“From Bahrain With Love: FinFisher’s Spy Kit Exposed.” The Citizen Lab, July 25, 2012.

Hacking Team Reports:

“Hacking Team Reloaded.” The Citizen Lab, March 9, 2015.

“Hacking Team’s Tradecraft and Android Implant.” The Citizen Lab, June 24, 2014.

“Hacking Team’s US Nexus.” The Citizen Lab, February 28, 2014.
“Mapping Hacking Team’s ‘Untraceable’ Spyware.” The Citizen Lab, February 17, 2014.

“Hacking Team and the Targeting of Ethiopian Journalists.” The Citizen Lab, February 12, 2014.

“Backdoors Are Forever: Hacking Team and the Targeting of Dissent.” The Citizen Lab, October 10, 2012.